• THE GEGHAMA MOUNTAINS

    ARMENIA

    A panoramic scene of the mountains and lakes of the Geghama Range in Armenia
  • GEGHAMA MOUNTAINS

    ARMENIA

    A hiker climbs a hill in the Geghama Mountains

A GUIDE TO TREKKING IN THE GEGHAMA MOUNTAINS

ARMENIA

The Geghama Mountains form one of the most unique landscapes in Armenia. Inhabited only in high summer by Yezidi nomadic herders and snowbound throughout a long winter, this starkly beautiful range of volcanic cones and craters runs roughly 70 km northwest to southeast, separating Yerevan and the Ararat Plain from high-altitude Lake Sevan.

Proximity to the capital and the tourist hub of Sevan makes accessing the Geghama Mountains straightforward enough, but the climate, altitude, and lack of tourist infrastructure means trekking here can be a challenge. With no guesthouses or shops and a lack of plentiful natural water sources, hikers must be completely self-sufficient when setting off into the Geghama, and be prepared to trek through remote landscapes with no marked trail. The reward for undertaking this challenge is the opportunity to camp by scenic alpine lakes, hunt for 5000 year-old petroglyphs, climb the rust-hued slopes of Azhdahak for a birdseye view of its crater lake, and enjoy the peace and tranquility of this isolated, open expanse of colourful volcanic peaks.

Our intention when setting off on our own Geghama Mountains trek was to hike the Transcaucasian Trail route north to south, the first of a number of TCT sectors we would tackle in Armenia. Our timing was not ideal though, setting off in late September the morning after the region’s first significant snowfall. We hoped we could complete our intended 6 day route, but knew we may have to alter our plans last minute if snow blocked our path. In the end we made it to the foot of Little Spitakaser on Day 4 and decided it wasn’t safe for us to continue, instead descending to Goght the following day.

As such, this guide covers a detailed breakdown of a 5 day trekking route from Sevan to Goght via Akna Lake, Azhdahak, Badi Lake, and Vank Lake, along with broader practical info and advice for trekking in the Geghama Mountains that is relevant for any hike or route in the region.

So, whether you’re preparing for the full 114 km Transcaucasian Trail route or an Azhdahak day hike, you’ll find everything you need to know about hiking in the Geghama Mountains here, including a downloadable map for offline use.

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OUR GEGHAMA MOUNTAINS ROUTE: QUICK FACTS

            • Distance | 84 km
            • Duration |days
            • Start/End | Lchashen / Goght
            • Min Elevation | 1697 m (Goght)
            • Max Elevation | 3542 m (Azhdahak Crater Rim)
            • Total Ascent | approx. 2367 metres
            • Total Descent | approx. 2625 metres
            • Hiking Season | Summer (July – early September best)
            • Water Sources | Very Limited

OUR GEGHAMA MOUNTAINS ROUTE

QUICK FACTS

Distance
84 km

Duration
5 days

Start/End
Lchashen / Goght

Min Elevation
1697 m (Goght)

Max Elevation
3542 m (Azhdahak Crater Rim)

Total Ascent
approx. 2367 metres

Total Descent
approx. 2625 metres

Hiking Season
Summer
(July – early September best)

Water Sources
Very Limited

 


WATCH OUR FILM

Watch the behind the scenes version of our Geghama Mountains hike on Instagram stories

Watch the behind the scenes
version of our
Geghama
hike on Instagram stories 

GEGHAMA MOUNTAINS HIKING MAP

GEGHAMA MOUNTAINS

HIKING MAP

Use the map below to help you plan your trek in the Geghama Mountains. Tap the menu button at the top left for more details, to toggle layers on and off, and switch between satellite and terrain view.

To use an offline version of this map, download our KML file for use with Maps.me (iOS/Android), or the GPX file for use with other offline mapping apps such as Gaia (iOS/Android) or OsmAnd Maps (iOS/Android). See the expandable box below for tips on using these apps. 

Download the entire route using the links below. Downloads for each day are available in the trek breakdown below.


To save this map to use online on desktop or mobile just tap the star symbol at the top. When you open Google Maps on your phone, navigate to ‘Saved’ at the bottom, then swipe along to ‘Maps’ at the top. You’ll find this map in your list of maps.

On desktop, click the three lines at the top left, select ‘Your Places’, then ‘Maps’. Click the map, then scroll down and select ‘Open in My Maps’ to access the interactive version.

Alternatively, just tap the rectangle symbol at the top right of the map in this blog post to view the My Maps version larger on desktop.

Unfortunately, it’s not possible to view this version of the map offline, but we’ve provided a download for a similar version for offline use.


MAPS.ME

Maps.me is our go-to offline mapping app. We find it straightforward to use for planning routes in advance, as well as navigating on the trail. It doesn’t drain our phone battery, and it’s quick and easy to save and organise ‘bookmarks’. There are many trails already marked on Maps.me, plus you can download and import a KML track of your route to the app. 

To use Maps.me, first download the app (iOS/Android). Hover over the region or country that you want to visit and the app will prompt you to download this map. Once downloaded, it can be viewed offline. 

You can tap anywhere and save it as a ‘bookmark’ by tapping the star symbol at the bottom. Hit ‘Edit Bookmark’ to personalise the bookmark colour, organise your bookmarks into different folders, and rename them. 

You can navigate easily or plan routes in advance by tapping your start point and selecting ‘route from’, then tapping your end point and selecting ‘route to’. Tap the car, walking, or cycling symbol at the top of the screen to indicate your mode of travel. If you want to plot a different route to the one suggested by Maps.me, just tap a third (or fourth, fifth, etc.) bookmark between the start and end points and select ‘add stop’. 

Maps.me shows the distance and travel time, plus elevation profiles for hiking trails. Note that the estimated time isn’t always reliable, but we’ve always found the distance and elevation gain/loss to be largely accurate. It only shows very basic contour lines.

You can track your progress on the trail using GPS. The arrow shows your direction of travel. Tap the compass at the top right of the screen to keep the map in a fixed position (the arrow will rotate). Alternatively, tap the arrow at the bottom right of the screen to rotate the map in the direction of travel (the arrow will stay in a fixed position).

GAIA

Gaia (iOS/Android) is another offline mapping app that is very useful. It shows the contours in much more detail than Maps.me, and you can download both the topographical and satellite view of your route in advance for offline use. The app has existing OpenStreetMap trails marked and you can import GPX tracks and view them offline. You can also create new routes online yourself and export them as GPX or KML files. You can navigate easily on the trail using the arrow that shows your GPS location. You can also check distances between places offline, however you will only get elevation profiles while online. There are a lot of useful features in the free version and even more benefits if you have a paid annual membership, so if you spend a lot of time outdoors it is worthwhile learning how to use the app to its full advantage.

In our experience, Gaia drains your phone battery much quicker than Maps.me, even in flight mode, so it’s best to shut down the app completely each time you finish using it.

OSMAND MAPS

OsmAnd Maps (iOS/Android) is another great offline mapping app with lots of useful features. In our opinion, it’s not as intuitive as Maps.me, and it has so many features that it can be a bit overwhelming at first. Like Gaia, we recommend checking out the written and video tutorials on the OsmAnd website to learn how to fully use the app. The benefits of the app include being able to plot routes in advance and save them as GPX tracks, and to view detailed elevation and terrain information, including surface types. You can also import GPX tracks. One downside is that the free version does not include contour lines, but these can be added via a paid plugin.


GEGHAMA MOUNTAINS TREK BREAKDOWN

As mentioned above, this guide covers our 5 day trekking route from Sevan to Goght via Akna Lake, Azhdahak, Badi Lake, and Vank Lake. We’ve broken down the route into daily sections below.

We’ve also given approximate timings and distances for each day, as well as approximate figures for elevation gain and loss. The total daily figures for elevation gain and loss are based on our recorded route using Garmin and may not be 100% accurate, but they are a good guide of what to expect.

The timings are based around average hiking speeds and are intended as a rough guide. If you’re a fast hiker it may take you less time, and conversely, if you’re a slow hiker it may take you longer.

ELEVATION PROFILE AND 3D ROUTE MAP VIDEO

Geghama Mountains Route Elevation Profile

The elevation profile of the Geghama Mountains route that we followed, starting outside of Lchashen and ending at the village of Goght



DAY 1 | LCHASHEN → CAMP BELOW MT KOND

15.3 km | + 719 m / – 18 m | 4 – 6 hours

DAY 1

LCHASHEN
CAMP BELOW MT KOND

15.3 km

+ 719 m / – 18 m

4 – 6 hours

Day 1 is a pretty easy introduction to this Geghama Mountains hike. You follow 4×4 tracks the whole way and climb gradually from Lchashen village to a camp spot below Mt Kond. There are no reliable water sources until Akna Lich (Akna Lake) at the end of Day 2, so you must carry enough water to last 30 km and a night camping (around 4 – 5 litres per person). It’s not difficult to navigate, but there are a number of different tracks criss-crossing the hillsides, so be sure to check your GPS each time you meet a fork in the trail.

If you’re driving to the trailhead, it’s possible to get dropped off a little outside of Lchashen village, at the end of the dirt road shortly before the quarry. Go past the quarry and continue on the road as it skirts round the hillside to your left. After about 1.5 kilometres the road turns to the left and from here becomes more of a 4×4 track. There is an ideal camping spot on the left, a flat grassy meadow in a dip, sheltered below some hills. This is a good option if you want to camp at the start or end of your Geghama Mountains hike, although there is no water nearby.

It’s a further 5.7 km to a viewpoint marked on OSM, and 2.7 km further to an old concrete building below Sarisurb peak. Note that although there is a lake marked on maps near here, it (like most others on the trail) is dry and can’t be relied upon as a water source.

Continue on the trail across a flat plateau towards some Yezidi nomad camps, the track curving around the left side of a camp, then weaving between Tas and another unnamed peak. Soon, a view of Lake Sevan will appear on your left. Mt Kond and Mt Mazaz are up ahead to your right. There are plenty of good spots for wild camping around here, with Sevan views and a bit of shelter provided by the mountains on the western side (depending on the wind direction!).

A tent set up in the northern end of Armenia's Geghama Mountains, looking east across the low foothills towards Lake Sevan

Camping with views of Lake Sevan to the east



A tent set up in the northern end of Armenia's Geghama Mountains, looking east across the low foothills towards Lake Sevan

Camping with views of Lake Sevan to the east



DAY 2 | CAMP BELOW MT KOND → AKNA LICH (AKNA LAKE)

15.7 km | + 523 m / – 149 m | 4 – 6 hours

DAY 2

CAMP BELOW MT KOND
AKNA LICH (AKNA LAKE)

15.7 km

+ 523 m / – 149 m

4 – 6 hours

Day 2 is another straightforward day in terms of navigation and terrain, following 4×4 tracks all the way to scenic Akna Lich (around 3000 m). As previously noted, there are no water sources available until you reach Akna Lake.

Continue on the 4×4 track that curves around Mt Mazaz towards a collection of old concrete buildings, heading in a southwestern direction. Red Hill rises to the right, no doubt named after its rusty hue, and soon a view of Mt Aragats appears in the distance (assuming it’s a clear day!). The trail then begins to curve south, climbing to a small church and cemetery with a large metal picnic bench perfectly situated for a rest with a view.

A hiker walks along a rough and winding 4x4 track towards a snow-covered dome-like peak in the Geghama Mountains of Armenia

Approaching a snow-covered Black Ridge, the track bends to the right, climbs to a small church, and skirts this mountain on its western side



A hiker walks along a rough and winding 4x4 track towards a snow-covered dome-like peak in the Geghama Mountains of Armenia

Heading towards a snow-covered Black Ridge,
the track bends to the right before climbing to
the small church and cemetery and skirting this
prominent mountain on its western side



From here the track continues around the western side of Black Ridge (also quite aptly named) up to a large open steppe. You’ll spot a telecommunications tower on a hilltop to the left,  with a nomad camp below. Views of Lake Sevan appear once again. Continue following the track as it crosses the grassland and rises towards the wide pass between Qarhanq and Shamprasar peaks. As you round the bend after the short climb, fantastic views of Mounts Seghanasar and Gekhmagan appear. The track then curves to the left in an easterly direction, climbs a little, then heads south with Akna Lake soon coming into view.

There is a decent camping area tucked below Mt Shushan on the northern shore of the lake, with a covered picnic shelter nearby. There is also plenty of flat ground on the western and southwestern shores. Note that Akna Lake is accessible via 4×4 tracks, and it’s not uncommon for groups to drive in for a rowdy picnic, and drive back out again.

Brilliant blue Akna Lich (Lake) gleaming in the late afternoon sun in the Geghama Mountains of Armenia

Akna Lich and the surrounding snowy mountains gleaming in the late afternoon sun



Brilliant blue Akna Lich (Lake) gleaming in the late afternoon sun in the Geghama Mountains of Armenia

Akna Lich and the surrounding snowy
mountains gleaming in the afternoon sun



DAY 3 | AKNA LICH → AZHDAHAK → BADI LICH (DUCK LAKE)

15.8 km | + 625 m / – 560 m |  5 – 7 hours

DAY 3

AKNA LICH
AZHDAHAK
→ BADI LICH

15.8 km

+ 625 m / – 560 m

5 – 7 hours

Day 3 is undoubtedly the highlight of the trek. You leave the jeep tracks behind and get up close with some of the Geghama Mountains’ most spectacular peaks, including the highest in the range, Azhdahak. The terrain is varied throughout the day, and the views are outstanding, ending with a very scenic camp at Badi Lich (Duck Lake). There are a few small lakes along the way and springs around Badi Lich, but these can dry up later in the season. Badi Lich itself is a reliable water source, however as with all of the lakes, it is frequented by livestock, so treating the water is essential before drinking.

The morning starts with a short climb up the hillside on a 4×4 track, just beyond the picnic shelter. From here you more or less leave the 4×4 tracks behind for the rest of the day. The trail curves around the hillside in a southerly direction, passing two small but very scenic lakes which would also make a nice camp spot. Akna Lich again comes into view to the right as the route leads up the hillside towards Agusar peak, away from the lake. Climb up through a narrow gully on the western side of Agusar and curve round to the left, after which the landscape opens up a bit. Continue heading south between Western and Eastern Aghusar. Soon you’ll reach a viewpoint looking directly at the northern slopes of Azhdahak.

The snow covered northern slopes of Azhdahak, the highest mountain in Armenia's Geghama Range

The northern slopes of Azhdahak come into view as you head south between Western and Eastern Aghusar



The snow covered northern slopes of Azhdahak, the highest mountain in Armenia's Geghama Range

Azhdahak’s northern slopes come into view as you
head south between Western and Eastern Aghusar



From here the trail descends over rocks to the flat grassy valley below. There is a lake to the left of the trail if you need to fill and treat water. At the valley floor head southwest, skirting around the western slopes of Azhdahak. The initial climb to Azhdahak starts by heading directly towards Red Ridge, before making a sharp turn to the east and traversing the slope up to the saddle between Red Ridge and Azhdahak. The trail is a mixture of dirt, grass, rocks and loose scree. Our GPX track was recorded with snow lying, so will likely follow a slightly different course than a more obvious trail you might see on the ground.

In good weather we highly recommend leaving your bag at the saddle and continuing up to the crater rim itself, or indeed all the way to Azhdahak peak (3597 m). The trail climbs to the left, another 86 metres in elevation to the crater lake viewpoint, or 131 metres in total to the peak. It’s possible to walk around the rim, and you can descend to the crater lake (to fill water or have a chilly dip!).

Electrical storms are common in the Geghama Range, especially in the afternoon throughout summer as water evaporates from Lake Sevan and condenses above the peaks (of which Azhdahak is highest). They can be sudden and severe, so stay alert, don’t take any unnecessary risks, and descend immediately if the weather starts changing.

A large lake sits in the orange and red hued crater of Azhdahak, the highest mountain in the Geghama Range

Azhdahak crater lake, some of the reddish hues on display despite the covering of snow



A large lake sits in the orange and red hued crater of Azhdahak, the highest mountain in the Geghama Range

Azhdahak crater lake with some of the orange and
reddish hues on show despite the covering of snow



Return from the crater to the saddle and traverse the shale hillside to the south. The trail is narrow at first on a steep-sided slope (again, our GPX track varies slightly from the usual trail here as we picked a path down to avoid snow). It then descends gently along the ridge to the southeast before turning sharply to the left and heading for a rocky outcrop. From here there are fantastic views over Lake Sevan, Badi Lich, and the next day’s route towards Great and Little Spitakasar.

From the viewpoint you must pick your way down the steep hillside over clumps of grass and jumbled rocks. The rocks continue for a while on flatter ground below, with a faint trail winding its way through. Beyond the rocks, a gentle grassy slope descends towards Badi Lich. Stay high as you approach the lake to avoid having to descend and climb again.

There is a perfect camping area on the northern shore of Badi Lich, tucked in and sheltered below steep-sided mountains. A number of streams feed the lake and there’s a spring nearby, although you can expect these to be dry later in the season. Otherwise, filter and treat water from the lake itself.

Badi Lich (Duck Lake) sits in a crater-like dip, with the hulking form of Great Spitakasar rising behind, one of the quintessential sights in the Geghama Mountains

The view to the south as you descend from Azhdahak; Badi Lich (Duck Lake) tucked in a crater-like dip, with Great Spitakasar rising behind



Badi Lich (Duck Lake) sits in a crater-like dip, with the hulking form of Great Spitakasar rising behind, one of the quintessential sights in the Geghama Mountains

Badi Lich (Duck Lake) tucked in a crater-like
dip, with Great Spitakasar rising behind



DAY 4 | BADI LICH (DUCK LAKE) → VANK LAKE

24 km | + 460 m / – 825 m | 5 – 8 hours

DAY 4

BADI LICH
→ VANK LAKE

24 km

+ 460 m / – 825 m

5 – 8 hours

Our intention for Day 4 of our Geghama Mountains hike was to continue on the Transcaucasian Trail route. But as mentioned, too much snow on the northern slopes of Little Spitakasar forced us to amend our plans and cut the hike short. Our route is outlined below, but know that this isn’t the most direct if you’re planning something similar.

You could cut 8 km from the distance by following the 4×4 tracks west from below Great Spitakasar, instead of continuing to the base of Little Spitakasar before turning around and following the tracks. Another interesting route (around 16 km) heads directly from Badi Lake to Vank Lake via some 4000 – 5000 year old petroglyphs and vishapakar (dragon stones). This variation is marked on our map above.

BADI LICH → LITTLE SPITAKASAR | 11.2 km | + 299 m / – 244 m | 2.5 – 4 hours

BADI LICH →
LITTLE SPITAKASAR

11.2 km | + 299 m / – 244 m

2.5 – 4 hours

From Badi Lich retrace your steps north for about 1 km, then head south and start climbing the grassy slope rising directly above the lake. At the top is a fantastic viewpoint. Continue climbing in an easterly direction towards three prominent cairns and another viewpoint. From here, turn south and follow a 4×4 track passing below Great Spitakasar. The track descends slightly, then climbs again to reach an open grassy expanse with views of Little Spitakasar on the far side. From this point it’s around 5 km to the foot of the mountain on an easy-to-follow 4×4 track.

A hiker treks southward in the Geghama Mountains with Azhdahak growing small in the distance

Climbing the grassy slope above Badi Lich with Azhdahak dwindling away in the distance



A hiker treks southward in the Geghama Mountains with Azhdahak growing small in the distance

Climbing the grassy slope above Badi Lich
with Azhdahak dwindling away in the distance



At the base of Little Spitakasar we decided it wasn’t safe for us to continue due to reasons mentioned above. Had we continued on our intended route, we would have done the following: climbed 120 metres on the northern flanks of Little Spitakasar to reach a viewpoint, followed a narrow trail above sheer cliffs for a couple of kilometres, and then descended towards a summer settlement known as Qajashen. Over the following 2 days we had planned to descend to the Argichi Floodplain and end our Transcaucasian Trail Geghama Mountains section at Selim Caravanserai. If you are planning to hike this full route, the TCT Geghama trail notes describe the rest of the route that we are unfortunately missing, and their GPX track shows the way (also included in our map for reference).

LITTLE SPITAKASAR → VANK LAKE | 12.8 km | + 161 m / – 581 m | 2.5 – 4 hours

LITTLE SPITAKASAR
→ VANK LAKE 

12.8 km | + 161 m / – 581 m

2.5 – 4 hours

At this point we backtracked to the nearest 4×4 track, which undulated across the rolling grassy hills in a northwesterly, then westerly direction. On the way we passed numerous nomad camps, now abandoned until the following summer. The track led us to the southern shore of Vank Lake, 13 km away and 500 metres lower in elevation.

DAY 5 | VANK LAKE → GOGHT

12.8 km | + 40 m / – 1073 m | 3 – 4 hours

DAY 5

VANK LAKE
→ GOGHT

12.8 km

+ 40 m / – 1073 m

3 – 4 hours

The route on Day 5 descends via 4×4 tracks and dirt road all the way to the main Geghard Monastery road, passing numerous nomadic settlements along the way. There are lovely views of the northernmost reaches of the Khosrov Forest State Reserve, an impressive canyon landscape stretching off to the south. There are springs along the trail, so you can fill water en route. In Goght it’s possible to take a taxi or bus back to Yerevan, or you can hitchhike.

From Vank Lake, follow the 4×4 tracks west and gradually descend across the hillsides. You can expect to see large flocks of sheep here, even later in the season. After 2 km or so you’ll find a spring just off the track, with water flowing from a pipe by the side of a stream. The area is close to a nomad camp and there is a lot of rubbish lying around unfortunately.

Hazy morning view of Ararat from the Geghama Mountains in Armenia

Hazy morning views of Mount Ararat from our camp spot near Vank Lake



Hazy morning view of Ararat from the Geghama Mountains in Armenia

Hazy morning views of Mount Ararat
from our camp spot near Vank Lake



Shortly beyond here the track starts to descend more steeply, and a wonderful vantage point opens up of the canyons and plains below. Continuing along the track, the occasional red and white painted blaze appears on rocks to mark a trail, but we have no idea which one! A large metal pipe lines the track, carrying water from Vank Lake to the villages far below.

After hiking about 7.5 kilometres and descending over 600 metres, you’ll reach a fantastic viewpoint overlooking steep canyon cliffs. A little further around the track, next to a giant metal cross, you can see all the way down to Geghard Monastery, tucked beneath cliffs at the end of a pristine tarmac road twisting through the canyon. There is a picnic shelter next to the cross and a water hose. About 700 metres further along the track is another picnic bench set in the shade of a huge tree, with a water pipe next to it. From here, a final 3.8 km and 400 metre descent will get you to the main road, down a rough rocky track which only the hardiest of vehicles can handle.

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PLANNING YOUR GEGHAMA MOUNTAINS TREK

Trekking in the Geghama Mountains requires specific preparation and planning, so we’ve covered a few practicalities below to help you get prepared for your hike.

WEATHER AND WHEN TO HIKE

The best time to hike in the Geghama Mountains is summer, ideally July – August. It may be possible from mid-June to late September, but the chance of snow is greater and the weather colder. There is also even less water than usual later in the season. Yezidi nomadic herders (and their protective guard dogs!) inhabit settlements dotted across the Geghama in summer, arriving sometime in June and leaving around mid-September. The Geghama range is reliably snowbound between November and May.

Electrical storms are common in the summer months, especially in the afternoon, caused by water evaporating from Lake Sevan and condensing above the peaks. It’s sensible to plan your route to avoid being on any summits, such as Azhdahak, or other higher ground sections from late morning onwards. The weather can change suddenly and be severe, so stay alert and ensure you descend to lower ground at the first sight of an impending electrical storm. Seek shelter in a building if possible, and read up on lightning storm best practice in advance so you know what to do to minimise the risk of being struck by lightning.

A tent on the snowy shores of Akna Lake in the Geghama Mountains

Camping at Akna Lich after the first snowfall in late September was very cold, and the days were a little too short



A tent on the snowy shores of Akna Lake in the Geghama Mountains

Camping at Akna Lich after the first snowfall
in late September was very cold, and the days
were a little too short



For weather forecasts we recommend checking Mountain Forecast in advance, specifying Azhdahak peak. This will give you a good idea of conditions both on the peak and at various elevations below. Windy (iOS/Android) is also very helpful for forecasts anywhere in the Geghama Range, and has the TCT route marked on it if you zoom in. We found our usual go-to weather app Yr.no (iOS/Android) much less useful for planning this trek as it doesn’t have many of the locations marked and just doesn’t give enough detail. Note that you will not be able to get a forecast when you are offline, but if you have a Garmin InReach like us, you can get weather reports at any location via a satellite connection.

FOOD

There is nowhere to buy food along the route so you need to carry everything with you and be completely self-sufficient for the duration of your hike. It’s also wise to pack enough food for one extra day. Stocking up in Yerevan is best, although there are small shops in Sevan (close to the northern trailhead) and in Martuni and Yeghegnadzor (the two closest towns to Selim Caravanserai at the southern trailhead).

Remember that you also need to carry all of your waste out with you, so it’s best to avoid excess packaging like tins, cans, bottles, jars, etc. These are often heavy, too.

Pack food that is high in calories, but low in weight, and make sure you have a good mix of proteins and carbohydrates. If you can, bring dehydrated meals from home for dinners. This is by far the most convenient option, using minimal water and providing a tasty, filling, and nutritious meal. We love Firepot meals and had a supply posted cheaply to Tbilisi (Georgia) via KiwiPost in preparation for our Armenia hikes. Other options include Mountain House and Good To-Go.

A Firepot dehydrated meal sat outside a tent with a pot next to it

A Firepot dehydrated meal, on Scotland’s West Highland Way rather than in the Geghamas, but you get the idea



A Firepot dehydrated meal sat outside a tent with a pot next to it

A Firepot dehydrated meal, on Scotland’s
West Highland Way rather than in the
Geghamas, but you get the idea



For snacks, Armenian dried meat such as basturma and sujuk is a great option. As is sweet sujuk (the Armenian equivalent of Georgian churchkhela), a string of walnuts dipped in thick grape juice. Supermarket bought lavash (thin Armenian bread) lasts surprisingly long, as will hard cheese such as parmesan. Store bread in a cloth bag and wrap cheese in muslin/gauze to keep them fresh. Dried fruit and nuts are easily available to create your own trail mix, as are chocolate bars such as Snickers and Mars for quick on-the-trail snacks.

WATER

Water sources are few and far between on this volcanic range, and you need to be prepared to carry enough water to last on those long waterless stretches. This can be up to 30 km, or perhaps even more. Springs are likely to be flowing in July but they dry up from August onwards. These water sources are often found near Yezidi summer camps, which can be quite a bit off-route at times. Annual variations in climate can affect how much water is flowing, even early in the season, so it’s best to ration water carefully regardless of the time of year you are hiking.

Akna Lich, Badi Lich, and the crater lake on Azhdahak itself (lich means lake) are considered reliable water sources throughout the hiking season, but most other lakes marked on maps are likely to dry up and can’t be relied upon. Possible water sources are marked on various mapping apps and on the TCT GPX track download. On our own GPX and KML track downloads we have marked water sources that we personally came across on our own hike in late September 2021. Note that we found most of the springs marked near the hiking route to be dry, but did not go off-track to double check any other sources or spend too long hunting around for marked springs if they weren’t immediately obvious.

You should treat all water before drinking as there is livestock grazing in the region and contamination is a risk. Ensure you have a reliable purification method in place, for example a Steripen and filter, purification tablets, a LifeStraw, or such like. You also need to have enough water bottles and/or bladders with you to carry a large volume of water.

 In a pinch, you could collect and melt snow, or collect rainwater in a pot, etc.

Looking down on Badi Lich (Duck Lake) and the Geghama mountains landscape beyond, from the viewpoint above the lake

Looking down on Badi Lich, one of the most reliable sources of water while trekking in the Geghama Mountains



Looking down on Badi Lich (Duck Lake) and the Geghama mountains landscape beyond, from the viewpoint above the lake

Looking down on Badi Lich, one of the most
reliable sources of water while trekking
in the Geghama Mountains



For your reference we started the trek carrying enough water to get us to Akna Lich at the end of Day 2 (10 litres for 2 people), then filled up enough lake water to carry to Badi Lich at the end of Day 3. Our plans shifted on Day 4, ending near Vank Lake instead of beyond Little Spitakasar, but we left Badi Lich carrying enough lake water to last us until the ‘reliable spring in one of the gullies’ (40.07017, 45.03619) mentioned in the TCT trail notes, which we aimed to reach on the morning of Day 5. We hoped to fill water from the rivers or springs in the Argichi Floodplain on Day 6, our last day. Our revised route to Goght (via Vank Lake) passed a spring on the morning of Day 5 (40.14248, 44.88343), and another water pipe by the road towards the end (40.15006, 44.82432).

MAPS AND NAVIGATION

The Transcaucasian Trail Geghama Mountains section is unmarked and there are no modern printed trekking maps of the region currently available. The only maps that we are aware of that you would be able to self-print are these 1:50,000 scale maps dating from the Soviet era (in cyrillic). Akna Lich, Azhdahak, and Badi Lich are all on this map.

With that said, navigating by GPS using offline mapping apps such as Gaia GPS, Maps.Me, Guru Maps, or OSMand, is the most realistic option. You can download our route using our KML/GPX tracks, and TCT provides a download of the entire route. See our tips in the above Maps section on how to use these apps. Hundreds of off-road tracks criss-cross the Geghama Mountains, and you’ll find these marked on the above apps too – very helpful if you have to plan an escape route last minute.

In general, we found navigating the route straightforward, with open terrain and distinct landmarks making it easy to identify where we were going. This left us to double check our GPS at any fork in the track and at a few sections where the route wasn’t immediately obvious.

MONEY

You won’t need any cash on the trail, but you may need cash to pay for transport to/from the trailheads or to buy supplies at either end. The closest towns with ATMs to the TCT trailheads are Sevan, Yeghegnadzor, and Martuni. If you’re ending in Goght, the closest ATM is in Garni, about 6km away.

PHONE RECEPTION AND DATA CONNECTION

You will lose phone reception and data connection for large stretches of this hike, especially in the remote higher altitude sections. Remember to set any webpages you want to reference on the trail to ‘read offline’ beforehand, screenshot any weather reports, and be sure to have all the maps and GPX tracks downloaded prior to setting off.

Keep your phone on flight mode to conserve battery, and fully shut down your mapping apps each time you use them throughout the day. There is nowhere to charge your devices, so you’ll need to bring a power bank or two, and ideally a solar panel, plus the relevant charging cables. A waterproof phone case is highly recommended, plus a dry bag for storing your electrical equipment. Make sure everyone in your hiking party has the route map downloaded. The more backup devices with mapping apps the better!

Fiery orange and red clouds cover the sky at dusk above Azhdahak in the Geghama Mountains

Fiery sunset clouds above Azhdahak, seen from Badi Lich



Fiery orange and red clouds cover the sky at dusk above Azhdahak in the Geghama Mountains

Sunset clouds above Azhdahak, seen from Badi Lich



On remote hikes like this, an emergency satellite communication device is highly recommended. We have a Garmin InReach, which allows us to send and receive text messages via satellite and can connect us to a 24/7 emergency assistance team. Since purchasing it in 2017 we have (thankfully!) only used it to communicate with family when we’ve been out of phone service for days on end and to receive weather reports, but it brings us immense peace of mind when hiking in remote areas like the Geghama. An InReach or similar emergency beacon is a worthwhile investment, particularly if you hike or travel in remote areas often.

TRAVEL INSURANCE FOR TREKKING AT ALTITUDE

It’s important to note that most travel insurance providers will only cover hiking up to a certain altitude as standard (often 2500 m or 3000 m). In order to be covered for hiking above this, you will probably need to add on an ‘activity pack’ or such like. The highest point in the Geghama Range is Azhdahak at 3597 m, with the saddle below Azhdahak (on the official TCT route) sitting at 3459 m. Make sure you check in advance whether your travel insurance policy covers you for hiking at these altitudes or not.

Whether you are currently in your home country or are already travelling, two travel insurance policy providers that can cover hiking above 3000 m are World Nomads (for residents of 140+ countries) and True Traveller (for UK and EEA residents only). We have purchased travel insurance policies from both of these companies in the past. We have found their policies to be comprehensive, and their online claims and extension processes straightforward.

 If you still need to organise your travel insurance, we’d suggest getting a quote from each to see which suits you best.

NOMADIC HERDER CAMPS AND GUARD DOGS

The Geghama Range is home to Yezidi nomadic herders during the summer months, and with them come guard dogs who are fiercely protective of their livestock and territory. If you spot tented settlements or livestock grazing up ahead, it’s advisable to give either a wide berth. Guard dogs act aggressively towards anyone and anything encroaching on their territory – they can be nerve wracking to deal with at best and downright dangerous at worst.

Avoiding any kind of confrontation is best, but if you find yourself in a situation, keep moving away from the dogs’ territory and do not run but walk quickly and confidently. Try to get the attention of the herder to call the dogs off. If a dog is getting too close to you, raise a hiking pole or pretend to pick up a stone from the ground and act like you are about to throw it to show that you too are dangerous, all the while continuing to move away from its territory.

As the majority of Yezidi herders had left their settlements by the end of September when we hiked this route, we only had one or two encounters with guard dogs at lower elevation on the last day. We have experienced similar situations while hiking in the Greater Caucasus Mountains in Georgia though. Generally speaking, if a herder engages with you while grazing their livestock or invites you into camp for a cup of coffee, the dogs will see you are not a threat and it’s safe to pass by or accept the offer of hospitality. Be mindful that food and water resources are limited and do not rely on herders’ water supplies, which may have been trucked in at considerable cost if the season is late or it’s a drought year.

TREK THE TRANSCAUCASIAN TRAIL IN SVANETI, GEORGIA

WHAT TO PACK FOR TREKKING IN THE GEGHAMA MOUNTAINS

The Geghama Mountains are remote, with no facilities such as guesthouses or shops. You need to be completely self-sufficient to hike here. You’ll need camping gear, all weather clothing, food, lots of water, electronics, and various other items to make your trek run smoothly and safely. We’ve compiled some packing lists and more info below.

ALL WEATHER CLOTHING

Make sure you pack clothing for all weather eventualities. The weather can be unpredictable, change quickly, and vary greatly between lower and higher altitudes. Akna Lich and Badi Lich (two popular camping spots) both sit at over 3000 m and it can get very cold here at night, even in summer. Electrical storms are common and bring torrential rain, and it can be fiercely windy in this exposed terrain.

You need waterproofs and layers (including a base layer, mid layer, and outer layer). Ideally your base layers should be made from merino wool or sweat-wicking material. Avoid jeans or any cotton materials – if they get wet they are heavy, take forever to dry, and you’ll get cold easily. A warm hat, sun hat, gloves and sunglasses are also needed. Make sure you have proper footwear (ideally hiking boots) that are broken in already. You may want to pack a pair of sandals for wearing around camp.

Merino Hiking T-Shirt x 2

His/Hers

Merino Thermal Baselayer

His/Hers

Merino Thermal Legging

His/Hers

Merino Underwear x 2

His/Hers

Sports Bra

Fleece

His/Hers

Down Jacket 

His/Hers

Rain Jacket/Shell

His/Hers

Waterproof Trousers

His/Hers

Quick Drying Hiking Trousers
(preferably with zip-off shorts)

His/Hers

Trousers to wear around camp
(Lightweight, similar to above)

Trekking Socks x 2

His/Hers

Liner Socks x 2

His/Hers

Warm Socks to wear at night x 1

Buff

Gloves

Liner & Waterproof Outer

Sun Hat

Warm Hat

Sunglasses

Hiking Boots

His/Hers

Sandals for camp


CAMPING EQUIPMENT

As a minimum you’ll need a tent, sleeping mat, and sleeping bag. We always like to have a pillow and sleeping liner too. You’ll also need a small burner, gas canister and cooking supplies.

HIKING GEAR

You’ll need the usual hiking gear, such as a backpack, hiking poles, a refillable water bottle or water bladder (with enough capacity to carry a 2 day supply of water), a water purification method, a first aid kit, rubbish bags for carrying out all your waste, a headtorch, suncream, and a toilet trowel (for digging a hole and burying human waste).

Backpack + rain cover

Pack Liner and/or Dry Bag

Hiking Poles

Water Bladder/Water Bottle

Water Purifier (eg. Steripen, purification tablets, LifeStraw, etc.)

First Aid Kit

Penknife

Maps

Rubbish Bag(s)

Headtorch

Suncream

Basic Toiletries

Toilet Paper

Toilet Trowel

Hand Sanitiser

Wet Wipes

Phone + Charging Cable

Waterproof Phone Pouch

Power Bank

Solar Panel


GET THE LOWDOWN ON OUR HIKING AND CAMPING GEAR

HOW TO GET TO/FROM THE GEGHAMA MOUNTAINS TRAILHEADS

There are multiple access points for the Geghama Mountains, but in this guide we’ll stick to providing transport information for the standard Transcaucasian Trail route, plus the route that we took, ending at Goght.

HOW TO GET FROM YEREVAN TO SEVAN (NORTHERN TRAILHEAD)

Sevan is the northern trailhead for the TCT Geghama Mountains section, about 70 km northeast of Yerevan.

TAXI

The easiest and quickest way to get there is by taxi, which actually allows you to get dropped even closer to the start of the hike on the outskirts of Lchashen village (40.50008, 44.92361). You can book a taxi via the GG app (iOS/Android), dropping a pin at the exact point you want to get dropped off at when you request a ride. It is usually charged at 100 AMD/km, so should cost around 7000 AMD. Note that taxi drivers can’t see your requested location when you order a ride and some drivers may cancel a confirmed pickup when they realise the destination is so far out of town. If so, just try ordering it again. The journey takes about 1 hour.

MARSHRUTKA (MINIBUS)

The cheapest option (besides hitchhiking) is to travel from the Northern Bus Station in Yerevan to Sevan town by marshrutka (minibus), costing 600 AMD and also taking around 1 hour. Marshrutkas depart regularly when full from 0900 until 1900. The Northern Bus Station is about 10 km/20-30 minutes north of central Yerevan. You can take bus 259 from Mashtots Avenue (see bus route and schedule) to the Northern Bus Station, costing 100 AMD. Alternatively, a taxi via the GG app will cost around 1000 AMD. If you ask nicely, the marshrutka driver may drop you off before reaching Sevan town. Note that it’s a 4.6 km walk from the Yerevan – Sevan road to the start point of our GPX/KML track on the southern side of Lchashen village.

TRAIN

There is also a summer train service (approx mid-June to mid-September) once a day usually at 0830 from Yerevan (Almast Railway Station) to Sevan. However, this takes 3 hours so isn’t the most convenient option. It costs 600 AMD. Check schedules here.

HOW TO GET FROM SEVAN TO YEREVAN

TAXI

If you’re ending your Geghama Mountains hike in Sevan you can try to order a taxi back to Yerevan via the GG or Yandex (iOS/Android) apps, however this isn’t as easy as ordering in Yerevan itself. So, you may need to take a local taxi back to Yerevan which will likely cost at least double the taxi app fares (approx 14,000+ AMD).

MARSHRUTKA (MINIBUS)

Marshrutkas run regularly from morning until late afternoon from the Sevan bus station. They drop you at the Northern Bus Station in Yerevan, take around 1 hour, and cost 600 AMD. Bus 259 goes from the Northern Bus Station to central Yerevan. Travel time is about 30 minutes to Mashtots Avenue and the fare is 100 AMD (bus route and schedule).

TRAIN

The summer (approx mid-June to mid-September) train service from Sevan to Almast Railway Station in Yerevan runs once a day, usually at 1700. It is very slow though, taking 3 hours. The train costs 600 AMD. Check schedules here.

HITCHHIKING

The Sevan to Yerevan road is very busy, so hitchhiking is also a good possibility.

HOW TO GET FROM YEREVAN TO SELIM CARAVANSERAI (SOUTHERN TRAILHEAD)

Selim Caravanserai is the southern trailhead for the TCT Geghama Mountains route, approximately 150 km east of Yerevan. There is no public transport to the 14th century caravanserai (also known as Orbelian Caravanserai), which sits at 2342 m just below Selim Pass. By road, you have to approach it either from Martuni to the north, or Yeghegnadzor to the south. Both Martuni and Yeghegnadzor are serviced by marshrutkas, from where you’ll have to take a taxi or hitchhike the remaining distance to Selim Caravanserai. Alternatively, you can take a taxi all the way from Yerevan.

MARSHRUTKA (MINIBUS)

Marshrutkas from Yerevan to Martuni depart regularly when full from the Northern Bus Station between 0830 and 1830. The journey takes about 2h30m and costs 1200 AMD. Check the Yerevan to Martuni marshrutka schedule here and double check locally in case of any changes. The Northern Bus Station is about 10 km/20-30 minutes north of central Yerevan. You can take bus 259 from Mashtots Avenue (see bus route and schedule) to the Northern Bus Station, costing 100 AMD. Alternatively, a taxi via the GG app will cost around 1000 AMD.  It’s about 25 km and a 30 minute drive from Martuni to Selim Caravanserai. The road is fairly busy with traffic, so you could try hitchhiking, otherwise you’ll need to ask around for a local taxi which will likely cost around 5000 AMD.

Marshrutkas from Yerevan to Yeghegnadzor depart from Labour Square (near Gortsaranayin Metro Station), leaving regularly when full between 0920 and 1800. The journey takes around 2h30m and costs 1000 AMD. Check the Yerevan to Yeghegnadzor marshrutka schedule here  and double check locally in case of any changes. It’s about 34 km and a 35 minute drive from Yeghegnadzor to Selim Caravanserai. As above, the road connecting Yeghegnadzor and Martuni via Selim Pass is fairly busy with traffic, so you could try hitchhiking to the caravanserai. Otherwise you’ll need to take a local taxi which will likely cost around 5000 AMD. Note that Yeghegnadzor is a much bigger town than Martuni, with more services such as shops, banks, guesthouses, etc.

TAXI

If following the general rule of 100AMD/km, it should technically cost around 15,000 AMD for a taxi from Yerevan to Selim Caravanserai. However, based on our own experience trying to get to the trailhead to start the Vayots Dzor TCT section, it is unlikely that you will get a GG or Yandex driver to accept your ride once they realise where you are going and how long it will take them to get there and back (as mentioned before, taxi drivers can’t see your requested location when you order a ride, they have to accept it first before they see your destination).

We were quoted 45,000 AMD for a taxi from central Yerevan to Selim Caravanserai after multiple failed attempts to order a GG/Yandex taxi for the trip (although it was apparently a gas-guzzling  Humvee). Given that it’s a long there and back trip, if you do try to arrange a taxi you should expect it to be at least double the standard fare (so 30,000 AMD+)

HOW TO GET FROM SELIM CARAVANSERAI TO YEREVAN

If you’re ending your Geghama Mountains hike at Selim Caravanserai, the most realistic options for getting back to Yerevan are either hitchhiking to Martuni or Yeghegnadzor, then taking a marshrutka, or pre-arranging a taxi to pick you up. With a Viva MTS SIM we had phone reception and 3G at the caravanserai, so calling a taxi when you get there could also be an option, assuming you have a contact. You will not be able to use any taxi apps to get a taxi from Selim Caravanserai.

If you finish your hike late and need to travel to Yerevan the following day, there is a suitable camping area near the caravanserai, and various accommodation options in both Martuni and Yeghegnadzor.

Follow the above marshrutka advice in reverse for travel from Martuni or Yeghegnadzor to Yerevan.

HOW TO GET FROM YEREVAN TO GOGHT (WESTERN TRAILHEAD)

The small village of Goght is a trailhead on the western side of the Geghama Mountains, approximately 34 km east of Yerevan. The tourist sites of Geghard Monastery and Garni Temple are nearby, so this is a well known spot to many.

A taxi from Yerevan to Goght via the GG app should cost around 3,800 AMD.

You can also reach the trailhead by bus/marshrutka. Goght bound marshrutkas depart from the Gai Bus Station in Yerevan seven times a day between 1130 and 2100. The journey costs 300 AMD and takes about 1 hour. To get to Gai Bus Station take local bus 5, 8, 22, 26, 35, 42, 53, or 63 from central Yerevan. The fare is 100 AMD and it’ll take about 20-30 minutes. We’ve linked the bus route and schedule for each above, but as with all Armenian public transport the departure times can be pretty loose and marshrutka often only depart when full.

HOW TO GET FROM GOGHT TO YEREVAN

You may be able to get a GG or Yandex taxi from Goght to Yerevan, costing around 3,800 AMD, however this isn’t guaranteed. We were quoted 6,000 AMD for a local taxi organised via the small shop but got lucky when a GG driver picked up the job. 

Yerevan bound marshrutka number 284 departs Goght seven times a day between 0720 and 1930, dropping you at Gai Bus Station. The journey costs 300 AMD and takes about 1 hour. From Gai Bus Station you can get to central Yerevan on local buses 5, 8, 22, 26, 35, 42, 53, or 63. The fare is 100 AMD and it’ll take about 20-30 minutes. We’ve linked the bus route and schedule for each above, but as mentioned departure times can be pretty loose and marshrutka often only depart when full.

It’s a busy road to Yerevan so hitchhiking is also a possibility.

ALTERNATIVE GEGHAMA MOUNTAINS TREKKING ROUTES

There are numerous possible trekking routes in the Geghama Mountains besides the north – south Transcaucasian Trail route and the north – west route outlined in this guide. Tracks used primarily by seasonal herders criss-cross the mountains in all directions, and these can be used to piece together a trekking route of your choice. We find it easiest to map out a potential route in advance using Gaia GPS on desktop, using a mix of topographic and satellite maps.

These dirt tracks also act as good escape routes if you have to change plans unexpectedly during your trek. They are visible on OSM, making it easy to identify tracks close to you via mapping apps such as Maps.me, Gaia GPS, OSMand, or Guru. This is exactly what we did when we decided it wasn’t safe to continue up Little Spitakasar due to too much snow.

The snow covered northern slopes of Little Spitakasar in the Geghama Mountains

Snow-covered Little Spitakasar; the route climbs the slope below the peak on the left then traverses below the peak on the right (above the cliffs)



The snow covered northern slopes of Little Spitakasar in the Geghama Mountains

The snow-covered Little Spitakasar; after crossing the
grassy expanse, the Transcaucasian Trail route climbs
the slope below the peak on the left then traverses
below the peak on the right (above the cliffs)



A common alternative is a 4 day west – west horseshoe-shaped route starting in Sevaberd and ending in Goght, hiking to Akna Lich, Azhdahak, Badi Lich (also known as Lake Nazeli), and Vank Lake via some ancient petroglyphs. Here is an example itinerary of this route. If you want to hunt for the 4000 – 5000 year old petroglyphs yourself you’ll find the location of many of them (there are over 12,000!) included in the GPX download from TCT and marked on OpenStreetMap (dotted all around this approx location – 40.18201, 44.90974). We’ve marked a possible trekking route on our map, too.

A 4 day west – east crossing of the Geghama Mountains is also popular, following a route such as this starting in Goght and ending in Tsaghkashen. This goes via Vank Lake, the petroglyphs, Azhdahak, and Akna Lake. Again, for reference we’ve marked a possible route on our map.

GEGHAMA MOUNTAINS TREKKING TOURS

If you’re short on time, prefer the security of hiking with a guide and group, or just want to take the hassle out of planning your Geghama Mountains trek, then a tour is a great option. Hidden-Caucasus (co-founded by our friend James) is a trekking company that covers the full TCT route over 6 days on their Volcanic Highlands tour. This 2 day hiking tour includes Akna Lich, Azhdahak, the petroglyphs, and Vank Lake. Alternatively, this 1 day Azhdahak tour combines off-roading and hiking to visit the crater lake and Azhdahak summit.

A GUIDE TO TREKKING IN THE GEGHAMA MOUNTAINS

We hope you’ve found this guide to trekking in the Geghama Mountains helpful. If you have any questions, or tips to share with fellow hikers in Armenia, please leave us a comment below.

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Simon
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Simon

Dear Kim and Del, Thank you very much for your very useful informations and hints for this great hike including the GPS track. Before our trip we visitied HIKE Armenia (https://hikearmenia.org) in Yerewan. They supplied us with some more informations and with a hiking map (printed by AnuBars) in 1: 100,000 scale, which was very useful too. We followed your track at the end of August this year (2022). We did not meet any other hikers on our way. Our tent was the only one on the plain. We started in Lchashen, where we stayed overnight at the guest house… Read more »

Ravi Sinha
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Amazing post and very informative as well. I liked that you have given tickets booking section so the readers can book their trips easily. Keep sharing such interesting articles with the readers.

A Guide To Trekking In The Geghama Mountains, ArmeniaA Guide To Trekking In The Geghama Mountains, ArmeniaA Guide To Trekking In The Geghama Mountains, ArmeniaA Guide To Trekking In The Geghama Mountains, Armenia
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